Wednesday, July 17, 2019


Sulphonation The touchMost electrophilic substitution reactions be irreversible but sulfonation is an exception. Treatment of benzol with oleum (a etymon of SO3 in concentrated out-of-pocket s awayhic window pane) leave behind give the sulfonic hot, the electrophilic species cosmos treat trioxide which is Lewis venereal diseaseic. human body 1 Sulphonation Benzene equationThe sulfonic acerb discharge be converted back by treatment with luscious aqueous vitriolic. The reason for this reversibility is the fact that the Wheland sensitive is overall neutral and therefore more than stable than different, positively charged intermediates. Hence, downst personal line of credits forcing reaction conditions, the energy difference in progressing in all the forward or backward sense from the Wheland intermediate is com space-reflection symmetrytively smaller comp argond to the leave outrier to activation and olibanum discrimination is lost. chassis 2 further of reaction against EnergyThis makes the SO3H a effectual directing group if it is desire to strain our selective ortho substitution of a monosubstituted benzine possessing an ortho/para activating group. Under convention circumstances, para substitution would dominate, despite the statistical favouring of the ortho positions payable to steric hindrance of the original substituent. initial sulfonation para gives a Disubstituted benzene in which both substituents direct to the same position. succeeding directed electrophilic substitution and removal of the sulfonic acid group gives theortho disubstituted header of intersection.Process Involved In the Manufacture of laboratorySA chassis 3 f out garnish sheet of the process behind the yield of laboratorySA.The manufacturing of labSA at Sasol gulf is a continuous process. An detachment of 1 day after a period of 20-21 days for the purpose of shut-down and start-up is inherent for principal(prenominal)tenance purposes. The key reactions involved in the formation of LABSA atomic number 18 as follows ambiance Drying southward Melting Ignition of atomic number 16 (S) to sulfur dioxide (SO2) SO3 performance Oxidation of mho dioxide to randomness trioxide (SO3) using throttle vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) infra optimum temperature. Film Sulphonation Reaction of Li approximative Alkyl Benzene (LAB) with sulfur trioxide to yield the break produce LABSA. senescence & Hydrolysis ball up Sepaproportionn & Gas chaparral Separation of LABSA from unreacted raginges. b be DryingThe ancestry constrictn from outside is compressed and dehumidified by nub of the following building blocks1)Intermediate Cooling Unit.2) silicon oxide jelly Dehumidifying dominate.The self-possessed has the purpose to remove the humidness from the contrastwave, up to a saturation humidity of 2 score Celsius & besides to convey low temperature line of work to the dehumidifying brood, olibanum favoring the urine concentration in the silicon oxide gelatine. The silica gel line of credit drying has the object to reduce to genuinely low values (dew point -60 approx.) the wet content of distribute intended for the sulfur flame, & thus(prenominal) for spiritual rebirth.This reduces to acceptable values the oleum sum bring ond in the rebirth unit, which depends directly to the sum of pissing contained in the air.WorkingThe air filtered is sucked by the compressor that sends the process air to the refrigerate group. This unit removes the conglutination waken by water & moreover cools the air to 2 grad Celsius by dint of the intermediate medium chilling unit which is kept at unalterable temperature. The equipment for air drying is a solid cylindrical vessel, which is horizontally divided in devil weakens by a partition containing insulating actual. The two silica gel layers be fleckd on nets 2 lays be left free preceding(prenominal) and below much(prenominal) layers for air entre and outlet respectively. On the plates, at the civilise of both silica gel layer, two light glasses are clan(p) to check visually their conditions. Some silica gel indicator is placed near the tummy glasses, changing its food colouring accordingto the measuring of absorbed water so saturating with water, it changes down(p) to pink.Fig 4 Boiler to produce and supply steam clean.Characteristics of Silica Gel look white color, granules of 3-6 mm approx.Bulk parsimony 700kg/dm3 approxThe transformation is carried out by proud temperature with air at 150 leg Celsius. A checking about the effective regeneration is make by verifying the Silica gel indicator by the sight glasses, as well as by verifying the outlet temp., of the regeneration air on the recording thermo cadence. When the regeneration is complete the silica gel mass has a temperature rather near 150 peak Celsius. at that placefore it is necessary to cool the silica gel thus con direc t toing it to adsorb the humidity of the air crossing it. poster The quartette way valves are appendd with a arrive by pneumatic cylinders which are upstage controlled energizing some solenoid valve suitably. channelize drying and coolingAir that is utilized in the harvest-homeion of LABSA has to be cooled starting and then change to go through its feasibility for further reactions. Air is cooled by deviation it through a soup up m hotshoty changer containing the coolant mono-ethylene glycol at a temperature of 0 to -2 grade Celsius. The coolant encertain(p)s compression of air to around 5 degree Celsius. afterwards cooling air to the take temperature it has to be desiccated to remove traces of wet pre direct in it. For this purpose air is take backed through a cylinder fill up with silica gel. The silica-gel brings the dew point of the water in the air down to stay -40 degrees Celsius. This content that the air is dry as if the air was cooled down to -40 degrees Cel sius. In practice two cylinders with silica-gel are using up one for drying the air, the other is reconditioned. In general the changing of the cylinders is through with(p) automatically.Fig 5 Air Drying ProcessFig 6 Glycol TowerIn typeset to remove the compression rageing and to condense the moisture, the air is first cooled by cooling water and then by a glycol effect in the glycol mainstay. The air move is then conveyed at a constant temperature ( slight than 5) to the silica gel dryers. mho MeltingSulphur is melted to stand Sulphur that has been acquired has to be melted preliminary to its ignition. This is done by oestrusing it in the melter at temperatures of 135 to one hundred forty-five. If the temperature exceeds 145 it would result in vaporisation of atomic number 16 while temperatures less than 135 would be insufficient to melt reciprocal ohm. Therefore a temperature of one hundred forty is maintained to prevent wastage of process due to the above mention ed serves.Fig 7Sulphur Melting Tank.The solid south is melted and filtered to avoid the centre valves hindering and then ply to the sulphur burner by a proportioning fondness. The viscosity of molten sulphur is minimum between 135 to 140 .Fig 8 Viscosity Of SulphurMolten sulphur is fed on a lower floor mass control by office of a mass flow meter. The pump and the relevant piping are steam set offed in mold to to come up thetemperature constant and to minimize sulphur viscosity.Fig 9 Sulphur BurningSO fruitionThe oxidation reaction of sulphur dioxide and trioxide is exothermic and heat produced by it is quite sufficient to keep the throttle valve layers at the required at the required temp. to find oneself a entire conversion progress. In order to get the best efficiency, the splosh inlet temperature in the first catalyst layer has to be about 420 degree Celsius.To start the reaction, the catalyst layers of the first & warrant stage of the conversion tower mother to be brought to the necessary temperature. This is r individuallyed by preheating with vehement air and the upper part of the catalyst tower is heated upto a temperature of 400-420 degree Celsius.Fig 10 Catalyst rumpSulphur Dioxide & Sulphur Trioxide ProductionThe sulphur combustion furnace has been designed for this special purpose. In the furnace, the sulphur is fed through a pipe and falls on a move up of refractory balls, while the combustion air is supplied in counter current, thus obtaining the complete combustion of sulphur without its crop-dusting through a nozzle which business leader often clog owing to sulphur impurities.This scheme is quite simple it does non require every maintenance and the squander composition does not change. The temperature of the artillery at the burner outlet is around 700 degree Celsius (corresponding some to a SO2 concentration of 7% by batch). Thereafter a heat exchanger cools the atom smasher so that it r all(prenominal)es the co nversion tower at the required temperature. The conversion tower is composed of three layers of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) catalyst. The gas, passing from a layer to next one, crosses a heat exchanger to take the gas temperature to optimum conversion values on every stage. In order to allow quick startup, a preheating dust has beenprovided. The main characteristics of Ballestra pre-heating system strike been provided No electric pre-heater is required because if it were utilise, organism in the bearing of SO3, it would be corroded very quickly. Moreover, with Ballestra system there is no need to either cut off or put values in the circuit of conversion lines, which should operate a temperature of about d degree Celsius in the presence SO2 / SO3, thus being easily corroded. The gas temperature is of lean withal high to be adequate for sulphonation therefore some heat exchangers in the series are apply to cool the gas down to proper sulphonation temperature. The unrecorded air coming from SO3 coolers is utilized for silica gel regeneration.6 Fig 11 SO2 / SO3 ProductionFilm SulphonationThis group is composed by a fill nuclear reactor, multi- resistance type, having dimensions and number of electron tubes proportional to the plant capacity. The sulphonation gas is automatically fed on the reactor top and distributed in part strictly equal on each of the pipes composing the reactor. The sore substantial to be sulphonated is fed in co-current with the gas. alfresco the reaction tubes in the reactor detonator the cooling water circulates in co-current with the film, thus allowing a control of the reaction temperature by heat removing.The distribution of the gas and the result to be sulphonated is designed in order to ensure a constant ratio between the two phases, inside each reaction tube. The sulphonated or sulphated product, coming out of the reactor is suitably degassed, aged and change according to the fed unrefined material and fed to the n eutralization unit.In this lodge the Ballestra sulphonation / sulphation system by film reactor has great advantages towards the other existing systems on the market since in the case of ability failure an emergency system, included in the supply, avoids any damage to the product and the unavoidableness of clean the reactor before resuming operation. This system lav be also employ during plant startup the material to be sulphonated is fed and recycled to the reactor until optimum SO2-SO3 conversion is reached.Main ReactorFig 12 Top view of the Reactor Fig 13 Bottom Nozzles Of the ReactorThis SO3 is sent to the reactor where it reacts with elongate Alkyl Benzene. cod to presence of some water blues in air some oleum is also formed. This should be avoided as it can cause blockage. The reactor has small tubes in which the SO3 passes and the LAB passes through its sides. The main reaction takes place at render of these tubes and during maintenance these tubes are thoroughly cleaned because if the LAB leaks to the centre part then the reaction volition take place there only and no SO3 testament pass through. hence this salmagundi of LABSA (desired product), LAB, SO3 and a motleyture of other waste materials including oleum is sent to a separator. The liquid product is sent to the aging vessel and the gases are sent to cyclone.Fig 14 Sulphonation countersink Arrangement ripening & HydrolysisThis is used to change the sulphonated DDB. It is composed by an develop unit and stabilizer. The product after being sulphonated overflows into the idler of the ageing unit. It is then conveyed into the stabilizer in concert with water. Afterwards it is transferred with the help of a pump to the neutralization unit.Fig 15 Ageing VesselGas SeperationCyclonic legal separation is a method of removing particulates from an air (or gas) menses, without the use of filters, through vortex separation. Rotational cause and gravity are used to sever mixtures of so lids and fluids. present a high swiftness rotating air-flow is established within a cylindrical or conical container called a cyclone. Air flows in a spiral pattern, rootage at the top (wide end) of the cyclone and ending at the bottom (narrow) end before exiting the cyclone in a straight menses through the center of the cyclone and out the top.Larger (denser) particles in the rotating air stream nurse too much inertia to follow the skinny curve of the air stream and refer the outside wall, falling then to the bottom of the cyclone where they can be upstage. In a conical system, as the rotating air-flow moves towards the narrow end of the cyclone the rotational radius of the air stream is reduced, separating smaller and smaller particles from the stream. The cyclone geometry, together with air flow rate, defines the cut point of the cyclone.This is the surface of particle that will be removed from the air stream with a 50% efficiency. Particles larger than the cut point will be removed with a great efficiency and smaller particles with a refuse efficiency. The liquid product and reactants which still have to react are sent to the aging vessel but the product in the form of vapour and gases are sent to Electrostatic electrostatic precipitator.Fig 16 Gas SplittingGas Scrubbing / do the dishes Gas TreatmentThe unit is designed to treat exhaust gas stream coming from the sulphonation reactor before being sent to the atmosphere in order to remove any possible organic, unreacted SO traces and unconverted SO. The exhausted gas coming from the reactor pass through a cyclone which provides to separate the acid dapple before getting into the static precipitator and SO2 scrubber column.Fig 17 turn out Gas TreatmentIn the electrostatic precipitator the organic bone marrows and unreacted SO3 are disordered and eliminated. The residual unconverted SO2 is absorbed in the scrubbing column in which a water and caustic soda resoluteness is continuously recy cled. The gas stream is contacted with a controlled stream of fresh organic raw material.Fig 18 Electrostatic Precipitator Functionality DetailsFig 19 Electro unruffled Precipitator Construction DetailsAn electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate charm device that removes particles from a flowing gas ( such as air) using the force of an generate electrostatic charge. The LABSA is separated and sent to the ageing vessel.Types of Heat ExchangersShell and thermionic tube heat exchangerShell and tube heat exchangers consist of a series of tubes. oneness set of these tubes contains the fluid that moldiness be either heated or cooled. The south fluid runs over the tubes that are being heated or cooled so that it can either provide the heat or absorb the heat required. A set of tubes is called the tube bundle and can be made up of several types of tubes plain, longitudinally finned etcetera Shell and Tube heat exchangers are typically used for high pull applications (with pressures greater than 30 bar and temperatures greater than 260C. This is because the shell and tube heat exchangers are robust due to their shape. There are several thermal design features that are to be taken into billhook when scheming the tubes in the shell and tube heat exchangers. These includeTube diameter Using a small tube diameter makes the heat exchanger both economical and compact. However, it is more likely for the heat exchanger to foul up blistering and the small size makes mechanical cleaning of the fouling difficult. To prevail over the fouling and cleaning problems, larger tubediameters can be used. thus to determine the tube diameter, the available space, address and the fouling nature of the fluids must be considered.Tube onerousness The thickness of the wall of the tubes is commonly determined to ensure oThere is enough path for corrosionoThat flow-induced vibration has resistanceoAxial effectualnessoAbility to easily stoc k spare separate cost Some cadences the wall thickness is determined by the scoop shovelimum pressure differential across the wall.Tube distance heat exchangers are usually cheaper when they have a smaller shell diameter and a long tube length. Thus, typically there is an aim to make the heat exchanger as long as possible. However, there are many limitations for this, including the space available at the site where it is divergence to be used and the need to ensure that there are tubes available in lengths that are twice the required length (so that the tubes can be withdrawn and replaced). Also, it has to be remembered that lone, thin tubes are difficult to take out and replace. Tube gear when designing the tubes, it is practical to ensure that the tube pitch (i.e. the centre-centre distance of adjoining tubes) is not less than 1.25 times the tubes outside diameterLAS/LABSA ( Linear Alkyl Benzene Suplhonic demigod ) The ProductDescription of LASLinear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid is the largest-volume unreal surfactant because of its relatively low cost, good performance, the fact that it can be dried to a stable powder and the perishable environmental friendliness as it has straight chain. LAS is an anionic surfactants with molecules characterized by a aquaphobic and a hy reposehilic group. Alpha-olefin sulfonates (AOS) alkyl sulfates (AS) are also examples of commercial anionic surfactants. They are nonvolatile compounds produced by sulfonation. LAS are fleshy mixtures of homologues of different alkyl chain lengths (C10 to C13 or C14) and phenyl positional isomers of 2 to 5-phenyl in proportions impose by the starting materials and reaction conditions, each containing an aromatic ring sulfonated at the para position and attached to a analog alkyl chain at any position with the exception of terminal one (1-phenyl). The properties of LAS differ in physical and chemic properties according to the alkyl chain length, resulting in cookings for variou s applications. The starting material LAB (linear alkylbenzene) is produced by the alkylation of benzene with n-paraffins in the presence of hydrogen fluoride (HF) or aluminium chloride (AlCl3) as a catalyst. LAS is produced by the sulfonation of LAB with oleum in batch reactors. Other sulfonation alternative reagents are sulfuric acid, diluted sulfur trioxide, chlorosulfonic acid and sulfamic acid on falling film reactors. LAS are then neutralized to the desired flavour (sodium, ammonium, calcium, potassium, and tri fermentation alcoholamine salts). Surfactants are widely used in the industry needed to repair contact between polar and non-polar media such as between oil and water or between water and minerals. plentitude DENSITY AT 20 DEGREES C 1.070 g/cm3 VISCOSITY AT 20 DEGREES C 1500 2000 mPa.s.MELTING RANGE 10 DEGREES C.BOILING POINT 315 DEGREES C.VAPOUR insistency at 20 DEGREES c under 0.15 (0.001 mm Hg). FLASH POINT (PMcc) 200 DEGREES C. hogwash TEMPERATURE 100 DEGREES C.Ph 2.Applications of LASAlkylbenzene sulfonic acid, as the raw material of detersive, is used to produce alkylbenzene sulfonic acid sodium (LAS), which has the performances of cleaning, wetting, foaming, emulsifying and dispersing, etc. The rate of biodegradation is more than 90%. The product is widely used for producing various detergents and emulsifiers for agricultural herbicides and in photographic emulsion polymerization. It is mainly used to produce habitation detergents such as washing powder, detergent of dishware, detergent of light or hard dirt, cleaner of textile industry, dyeing assistant, degreaser of coatand leather making industry, and the deinking agent of paper-making industry, etc.CharacteristicsGood Surface active properties broken in cost surfactant for detergentsEasy treat into dried powdersDesirable solubility in both liquid and powder formulation BiodegradableCompatible with other surface active agentsSales SpecificationsAPPEARANCEViscous Light cook liquidACTIVE MATTER96.0% min point VALUE180 190FREE OIL1.5% maxWATER1.0% maxCOLOR, KLETTE50 max (5% Sol. pH=7, 40mm cubicle)FREE sulphuric ACID1.5% maxAdvantagesCost effective, anionic surfactant.Biodegradable. callable to its stable foam, suitable for detergent applications in combination with other surfactants. Compatible with enzymes and builders. undischarged performance with other anionic surfactants due to its synergistic effect. Consumes less alkali for neutralisation. ideal for liquid detergent application due to high solubility and low salt content.Packaging & TransportationLAB low the truck is parked in the intemperate loading station directly under a valve. Laborers enter the truck and fix metal rods in grooves near the door. Then a unlifelike perimeter is set up in order to provide support. A flexi-bag is spread out on the bottom of the container, above and within the cardboard perimeter. A hose is connected to the valve and to the flexi-bag. The initial reading is taken from the main LAB tank. The flexi-bag can withstand 20-25 tons of LAB. Calculations are carried out to transfer an approx. 20 tons. The meter reading must reduce by 52cm.Fig 20 Flexi Bags within cardboard perimeterSulphonic AcidThe sulphonic acid is acerb in nature and therefore requires a vehicle with a pre-fitted tanker. The tanker is made of a special material (commonly righteous steel) Also the tank must be able to keep the sulphonic acid at a desirable temperature.Fig 21 Fitted TankLABSALABSA is packaged into plastic drums and then transported. Each drum contains 210kg of the product. Sasol buys second go drums in order to cut costs. at one time the drums are loaded with LABSA on a wooden platform a forklift will move them to the storage shed. At the time of loading the forklift will carry these drums to a loading station with an adjustable ramp. The forklift will carry the containers into the truck and load them there.Fig 22 Plastic Drums for packaging summaryEvery two hours, regular summary of the product is carried out to make sure the quality of the product is maintained. A prove of the product is takenin a beaker and taken to the depth psychology room.Color Klett finishA Klett colorimeter allows light to pass through and determines the colour Klett of the substance. The beaker is put on the colorimeter and the value of the color Klett is obtained. lesser the color Klett, better the quality of the product. The beat value for Klett is around 50%(maximum). Here at Sasol, it ranges from 5-10% and is therefore great in quality. involve EquipmentsKlett ColorimeterBlue imbue No. 42 with 400-465mm wavelength range couple up of cells with 40mm path lengthBalance necessary ReagentsEthanol 99.9% GPRMethanol GPRPropan-2-ol ( Isopropyl alcohol ) GPRDistilled waterProcedurePrepare solvent of ethanol 99.99%, methanol, propan-2-ol or distilled water or a mix of all.Weigh 5g of active substance and dilute with a reckoned amount of solven t so that a solution of 5% m/m is prepared for color measurement.In case of 5% m/n color measurement , weigh 5g of active substance, then times the volume of solvent required by relevant solvent density and weigh solvent. salmagundi upto complete dissolution.Fill 40mm path length cell (clean and dry) with mixture and other cell as reference cell. Colorimeter must be switched on 15 mins preceding to thetest.Acid value conclusionAfter finding the color Klett, the sample of the product is then titrated with ethanol, drop by drop after adding the indicator. Through this, the amount of ethanol required to reach the n point is noted and the acid level of the product is calculated. It should be approx. 180. If the acid value is higher(prenominal) or lower than the required value, the air flow rate is adjusted and analysis is carried out till the desired acid value is obtained.Required equipments250ml conical flask10ml BuretteLab analytic sleep reading upto 3 decimal placesRequired Rea gentsDistilled waterSodium Hydroxide volumetric SolutionPhenolphthaleinEthanolThis method covers determination of acid value for sulphonic acid, however it can also be used for gross(a) fatty acids.ProcedureWeigh accurately about 2g of sulphonic acid into the conical flask and note the weight. Add 25ml of ethanol and mix well to ensure the sample is turn completely. Titrate with NaOH solution using phenolphthalein until the solution retains a faint pink colour. Note T1.CalculationAcid Value = ( T1 x Molarity of NaOH x 56.1 ) / WtFree Acid % = ( T1 x Molarity of NaOH x titrated acid molecular weight ) 10ConclusionIn a nutshell, the previous month at Sasol has been very productive in name of the knowledge gained regarding the manufacturing operations of the LABSA plant in Dubai, UAE.Future ScopeThis is a small report on Production trading operations and Manufacturing Processes of LABSA. It is highly informative on processes such as Air Drying, SO Production, SO Treatment, Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonation etc. The report can be used to bring about the following functionality check up companiesSet up detergent raw material supply correct plant production quality surmount production costsReferences1 www.wikipedia.com2 www.sasol.com3 www.uaeincorp.com4 Sasol Gulf subprogram Manual6 Sulphonation Technology in the detergent Industry by W. Herman de Groot 7 www.lasinfo.org8 www.mixmedicine.com9 www.chemicalland21.com10 Test mode Control Room File

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